Drugs can be metabolized by oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydration, conjugation, condensation, or isomerization; whatever the process, the goal is to make the drug easier to excrete. The enzymes involved in metabolism are present in many tissues but generally are more concentrated in the liver.
How does metabolism affect medication?
Drug and Food Interactions.
When they increase the enzyme’s metabolic function, the drug’s therapeutic effects may be decreased. When they decrease the enzyme’s metabolic function, the drug’s benefits may be compromised by intolerability. Your metabolic enzyme systems change throughout your lifetime.
What does metabolism mean in medication?
Drug metabolism is the term used to describe the biotransformation of pharmaceutical substances in the body so that they can be eliminated more easily. The majority of metabolic processes that involve drugs occur in the liver, as the enzymes that facilitate the reactions are concentrated there.
Is Metabolism how the stomach breaks down the medicine?
Once the medication arrives, it is broken down by stomach acids before it passes through the liver and then enters the bloodstream. Certain medications may stay in the bloodstream longer – it all depends on the dosage and drug family consumed.
Why do I metabolize medication so fast?
Because of their genetic makeup, some people process (metabolize) drugs slowly. As a result, a drug may accumulate in the body, causing toxicity. Other people metabolize drugs so quickly that after they take a usual dose, drug levels in the blood never become high enough for the drug to be effective.
What are the phases of drug metabolism?
Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation. Oxidation reactions are the most common and vital.
What the body does to the drug?
Pharmacokinetics, sometimes described as what the body does to a drug, refers to the movement of drug into, through, and out of the body—the time course of its absorption, bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
Where does drug metabolism occur?
Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms. The liver’s primary mechanism for metabolizing drugs is via a specific group of cytochrome P-450 enzymes.
What is oxidation in drug metabolism?
In most cases, an oxygen atom is retained in the metabolite, although some reactions, such as dealkylation, result in loss of the oxygen atom in a small fragment of the original molecule. Oxidation reactions are catalysed by a diverse group of enzymes, of which the cytochrome P450 system is the most important.
What are the factors affecting metabolism?
Your metabolic rate is influenced by many factors – including age, gender, muscle-to-fat ratio, amount of physical activity and hormone function.
Why does first pass metabolism occur?
The drug is absorbed from the GI tract and passes via the portal vein into the liver where some drugs are metabolised. … For example, first pass metabolism occurs in the gut for benzylpenicillin and insulin and in the liver for propranolol, lignocane, chloromethiasole and GTN.
What are 6 ways drugs can enter the body?
Methods to Administer Drugs
- Intravenous (IV) (into a vein)
- Oral (by mouth)
- Intramuscular (IM) injection (into a muscle)
- Subcutaneous (SC) injection (under the skin)
- Intrathecal Therapy (within the spinal canal)
What does it mean to be a fast metabolizer?
People who inherit two copies of the “fast” variant – one from each parent – are generally referred to as fast metabolizers. Their bodies metabolize caffeine about four times more quickly than people who inherit one or more copies of the slow variant of the gene.
Does weight affect drug metabolism?
Physiological alterations to the body, such as increased adipose (fat) tissue, can affect distribution, metabolism and clearance of drugs from the body.
What is a poor metabolizer?
Poor Metabolizer (PM) – This means there are two copies of low or no activity genes. This results in very little to no CYP2C19 activity. About 2 out of 100 people have this gene status. Certain drugs should be avoided and patients may need to have their doses of some medications adjusted.