Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in which severely overweight people fail to breathe rapidly or deeply enough, resulting in low oxygen levels and high blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels.
What is morbid obesity with alveolar hypoventilation?
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS; “pickwickian syndrome”) exists when an obese individual (body mass index [BMI] >30kg/m2) has awake alveolar hypoventilation (arterial carbon dioxide tension [PaCO2] >45 mmHg) which cannot be attributed to other conditions (eg, neuromuscular disease).
What is alveolar hypoventilation?
Alveolar hypoventilation is defined as insufficient ventilation leading to hypercapnia, which is an increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as measured by arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2).
What is obesity hypoventilation?
What is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS)? OHS is a breathing disorder seen in some people. who are severely obese or very overweight that. leads to low oxygen levels and too much carbon. dioxide in your blood.
How do you treat obesity hypoventilation syndrome?
Recommended treatment for OHS patients include: a controlled weight loss program1; and nocturnal positive airway pressure, that is, noninvasive ventilation (NIV).
What is an early sign of hypoventilation?
During the early stages of hypoventilation with mild to moderate hypercapnia, patients usually are asymptomatic or have only minimal symptoms. Patients may be anxious and complain of dyspnea with exertion. As the degree of hypoventilation progresses, patients develop dyspnea at rest.
Can having a big belly cause breathing problems?
Extra fat on your neck or chest or across your abdomen can make it difficult to breathe deeply and may produce hormones that affect your body’s breathing patterns. You may also have a problem with the way your brain controls your breathing. Most people who have obesity hypoventilation syndrome also have sleep apnea.
What happens if hypoventilation is left untreated?
If left untreated, hypoventilation can cause life-threatening complications, including death. Respiratory depression occurring from a drug overdose can lead to respiratory arrest. This is when breathing completely stops, which is potentially fatal.
What are the signs and symptoms of hypoventilation?
- Bluish coloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen.
- Daytime drowsiness.
- Morning headaches.
- Swelling of the ankles.
- Waking up from sleep unrested.
- Waking up many times at night.
What happens during hypoventilation?
Hypoventilation: The state in which a reduced amount of air enters the alveoli in the lungs, resulting in decreased levels of oxygen and increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. Hypoventilation can be due to breathing that is too shallow (hypopnea) or too slow (bradypnea), or to diminished lung function.
Is obesity hypoventilation syndrome a restrictive lung disease?
Some conditions causing restrictive lung disease are: Interstitial lung disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Sarcoidosis, an autoimmune disease. Obesity, including obesity hypoventilation syndrome.
What causes hypoventilation?
Metabolic production of carbon dioxide occurs rapidly. Thus, a failure of ventilation promptly increases PaCO2. Hypoventilation may be secondary to several mechanisms, including central respiratory drive depression, neuromuscular disorders, chest wall abnormalities, obesity hypoventilation, and COPD.
Is it harder to breathe when overweight?
People who are overweight or obese often suffer shortness of breath due to excess fat in and around the chest which impedes breathing. Shallow, inadequate breathing is common in people with obesity and this makes exercise more difficult.
Does obesity affect oxygen levels?
Obesity affects lung function and diminishes oxygen exchange.
How does obesity affect breathing?
Obesity causes mechanical compression of the diaphragm, lungs, and chest cavity, which can lead to restrictive pulmonary damage. Furthermore, excess fat decreases total respiratory system compliance, increases pulmonary resistance, and reduces respiratory muscle strength.
What is Pickwickian syndrome?
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (or Pickwickian syndrome) is defined as the presence of awake alveolar hypoventilation characterized by daytime hypercapnia (arterial PCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg [5.9 kPa]) that is thought to be a consequence of diminished ventilatory drive and capacity related to obesity (BMI over 30) …